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Koy Sanjaq (KS): What of the Jews out of Koy Sanjaq, citizen just like the in the 1951 from inside the Israel

Suggestions comes from Robert Hoberman (personal interaction). Which is apparently broadly associate of your Jewish dialects of a great many other towns of the area as well, including Aqra and you can Rawanduz.

However, contained in this dialect there is an incredibly uncommon change from h so you can h about 3rd person one possessive suffixes: resIh ‘his head’

Azerbaijan (Azer): What of Jews away from Iranian Azerbaijan, plus organizations during the Urmi, Salmas, Basqale, Mahabad, and you will Yuksekova. Information is from Garbell (1965).


Halabja (Hala): The words of your own Jews regarding Halabja into Iran-Iraq border. This is extremely around the Jewish languages of your own almost every other metropolises of one’s region, and Saqqiz, Suleimaniya, Sanandaj, Baneh, and you will Panjwin. Recommendations arises from my cards.

We’ll contrast this type of dialects with regard to twenty-four phonological, morphological, morpho-lexical, and you will lexical standards. After the Hetzron (1976, 98), we have chose merely innovations due to the fact criteria to own category. I’ve picked a beneficial disproportionate amount of morphological requirements, and in addition we shall provide them with special lbs, once again pursuing the Hetzron, however, almost every other shared innovations will be thought to be better.

Note also the more difficult maintenance and also insertion of into the Koy Sanjaq claimed from the Hoberman (1985)

Even as we examine the new dialects from NENA we’ll make an effort to dictate the brand new extent that this new languages share a distinct development hence is different from Turoyo and you may Mandaic. Meanwhile, we will find packages away from isoglosses within this NENA.

(1) Fret are penultimate in most the fresh NA dialects, also Turoyo and Mandaic but not on the around three easternmost Jewish dialects, Jewish Azerbaijani, Koy Sanjaq, and you will Halabja, which usually stress the final syllable. These dialects have a look, along these lines, such as many others (Garbell 1965), to exhibit an unusually good influence away from Kurdish.

(2) All the NENA languages has blended h and you may x. In the Hertevin as a result, h, and you will every-where more it’s x: Hertevin haye ‘life’ (Jastrow 1988, 189) and dmehli ‘I slept’ (Jastrow 1988, 18), Tkhuma xa:[Theta]an excellent ‘new’, Jilu ptIxli ‘I opened’ (Fox 1992, 45), and you can +damxotu ‘you sleep’ (Fox 1992, 55).(4)

Both Turoyo and you may Mandaic hold separate h and you can x. Specific NENA dialects have reintroduced h because the a borrowing from the bank out of Kurdish or Arabic otherwise off Traditional Syriac otherwise Hebrew.(5) Yet not, this new handed down vocabulary consistently reveals x. Such, for the Tisqopa discover lent Arabic terminology, instance sahabi ‘friend’, having h, however, passed down terms particularly laxma ‘bread’ consistently show x. (6)

(3) All the NENA languages but Hertevin and you may Zakho have lost really era out-of passed on. Like, inside Aradhin we find arba ‘four’, upra ‘earth’ corresponding to Syriac arb an effective and you can afra. In the Hertevin plus Zakho, passed on was regularly ?: Hertevin thus?a ‘seven’ (Jastrow 1988, 99), Zakho sme?los angeles ‘she heard’ (Meehan and you may Alon 1979, 189). In lots of almost every other languages most are maintained since ?, and, regarding others, is fully gone totally. Specific dialects has reintroduced borrowed out of Arabic or Kurdish. Eg, Halabja keeps ayza ‘good’.

(4) Within the earlier dialects regarding Aramaic, like in Tiberian Hebrew, t turned into [Theta] immediately following good vowel. Which alternation might have been lexicalized for the NENA, having sometimes t or [Theta] spread because of whole paradigms, whether or not preceded by the an effective vowel or perhaps not. Like, into the Aradhin the new verb ‘come’ now has [Theta] throughout: a[Theta]ya ‘it (fem.) comes’, as well as [Theta]e:los angeles ‘she came’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70, 74). Then, in a few dialects brand new phoneme [Theta] has gone through extra transform. In some languages [Theta] provides blended back again to t, and in anybody else it has become s if you don’t l.(7) In one dialect, Jilu, it’s become h right after which been erased but in the beginning of a word. The three easternmost Jewish dialects display new alarming change off [Theta] to one. The outcomes of these changes is seen regarding keyword ‘house’ hence seems in almost any dialects because the getting:[Theta good]an effective (Tkhuma), biya (Jilu), beta (Hertevin), bela (Halabja), and you can besa (Sanandaj Christian).